The reality is, there is no “better” or “worse” in the automated vs. manual debate, there’s just “different.” Each approach has its own advantages and disadvantages. Manual testing is performed by a human sitting in front of a computer carefully going through application via SQL and log analysis, trying various usage and input combinations, comparing the results to the expected behavior and recording the results. Automated testing is often used after the initial software has been developed. Lengthy tests that are often avoided during manual testing can be run unattended. They can even be run on multiple computers with different configurations.
2. You’ll also need access to a network in order to send messages from your controller to your home’s devices. Most home automation systems either use Wi-Fi or a simple Bluetooth connection. This, of course, depends on how you plan to use your system. For example, if you think you’ll want to interact with your devices while at work, a Bluetooth connection won’t cut it.
Todd Hilehoffer was compiling reports for a Pennsylvania insurance company in 2000 when he realized his work could be done by a computer program. “I was very green at the time, with only a year of IT experience,” he told me in a direct message, when he started writing code that could replace his job. “It took me about a year to automate it. I always thought my bosses would be impressed and would find more work for me.” They were impressed, but they also didn’t have another job for him. He passed his days playing chess online. “I was really only completely idle for about 6-9 months,” Hilehoffer writes, after which he received a promotion.
Typically, a hub will include multiple radios for popular smart home protocols like Z-Wave and ZigBee -- the wireless "languages" of smart home gadgetry. This allows the hub to "talk" to everything in its native language, then translate that info into a Wi-Fi signal that you (and your router) can understand and put to use. With the right hub, you'll be able to expand your system dramatically without things getting too complicated.

Full automation commonly defined as requiring no control or very limited control by the driver; such automation would be accomplished through a combination of sensor, computer, and communications systems in vehicles and along the roadway. Fully automated driving would, in theory, allow closer vehicle spacing and higher speeds, which could enhance traffic capacity in places where additional road building is physically impossible, politically unacceptable, or prohibitively expensive. Automated controls also might enhance road safety by reducing the opportunity for driver error, which causes a large share of motor vehicle crashes. Other potential benefits include improved air quality (as a result of more-efficient traffic flows), increased fuel economy, and spin-off technologies generated during research and development related to automated highway systems.[71]
Every software development group tests its products, yet delivered software always has defects. Test engineers strive to catch them before the product is released but they always creep in and they often reappear, even with the best manual testing processes. Test Automation software is the best way to increase the effectiveness, efficiency and coverage of your software testing.
“I don't think that using the 'test automation' label in itself is wrong though, as long as people are aware of what is being automated (checks) and what is not (tests). This difference between testing and checking also provides an argument as to why manual testing as an activity will not cease to exist, at least not for the foreseeable future: testing activities cannot be automated!”
The objective of automated testing is to simplify as much of the testing effort as possible with a minimum set of scripts. If unit testing consumes a large percentage of a quality assurance (QA) team's resources, for example, then this process might be a good candidate for automation. Automated testing tools are capable of executing tests, reporting outcomes and comparing results with earlier test runs. Tests carried out with these tools can be run repeatedly, at any time of day.
“Supporting the Nation's manufacturers, especially small businesses, is critical to keeping America innovative in a global marketplace…MEP, NIST, and its partners are directed to consider the importance automation plays in accelerating and integrating manufacturing processes. The topic of automation cuts across all levels of industry, rather than serving as a stand-alone technology, and particularly affects the fields of control systems cyber security, industrial wireless sensors, systems interoperability, and other basic automation technologies necessary for the success of industrial enterprises. NIST is encouraged to consult and collaborate with independent experts in the field of automation to support the agency's efforts in working with industry to increase innovation, trade, security, and jobs."
Self-automators show that coders are in a unique position to negotiate with employers over which automation-derived gains—like shorter workweeks and greater flexibility to pursue work that interests them—should be kept by workers. There’s little evidence of any interest in doing so, but theoretically, self-automators could organize, and distribute automation techniques among middle- and working-class coders, giving rising to an industry that could actually enjoy that 15-hour workweek. It seems a rare opportunity—perhaps, with the advance of AI, one of the last—to try to set the terms for a mode of automation that puts people first.
A trade credit insurance company with over 50,000 clients worldwide automated the credit limit request underwriting process. Underwriters were previously gathering information manually, from internal (Risk & Policy) to external (Customer Site, Google News) sources. With RPA, they saved 2,440 hours of human work a month. Employees now use that time to work directly with customers.
An image-based automated functional testing tool that enables testers to interact with AUT the same way end users do. TestPlant eggPlant is completely different from traditional testing tools in its approach: modeling user’s point of view rather instead of the test scripts view often seen by testers. This allows testers with less programming skills to learn and apply test automation intuitively. The tool supports various platforms like Web, mobile, and POS systems. It offers lab management and CI integration as well.

Summary: Provides test automation for end-to-end scenarios across multiple endpoints with support for REST, web services and over 120 protocols/message types. Parasoft SOAtest creates extensible and reusable tests. In addition to API testing, it also offers SOA testing, web and performance testing, web UI testing, runtime error testing, API security testing, service virtualization, and development testing.


Crispin and Gregory define Test-Driven Development (TDD) as the process of writing and automating small unit tests before writing the piece of code that will make the test pass. TDD is used for continuous integration testing to ensure small units of code work together first. A unit test verifies the behavior of a small part of the code in the overall system. These tests are the primary candidate for the majority of automated tests. Even teams that are not practicing Agile development use TDD to prevent defects and design software (Agile Testing, 2008).

When it comes to business process automation efforts, our experts from around the web give several recommendations for how to get started. Some say that the projects are only successful if you initially approach them from the position of the desired outcome. Others recommend automating first, then figuring out the processes. Some claim that a full map and model of your processes are required prior to any automation. Experts also extol the virtue of having your business leaders on board, even as part of the team. Finally, they emphasize that you should improve all your processes (not just the automated ones) to maximize usefulness. In other words, garbage in, garbage out.
One other smart home platform you might have heard something about is IFTTT. An acronym for "If This, Then That," IFTTT is a free service that lets you craft automation recipes that link smart gadgets, web services, and online tools. Select a cause ("if this") and an effect ("then that"), and the recipe will run automatically. A social networking recipe might automatically save your Instagram photos to a Dropbox folder, for instance. Once you start adding smart home gadgets into the mix things get even more interesting -- and more and more are joining IFTTT's ranks all the time.
Additionally, these tools help to eliminate repetitive operations -- replacing the human element -- and do what might not be possible otherwise, such as complementing or cataloging, searching, and combining information in ways that are common for test and software development organizations. Application testing helps organizations find issues in their product before the customers do. The number of combinations one has to test for -- even the most trivial of programs -- can be staggering. A pair of nested for loops, for example, can have unique test cases that number in the millions.
Business process automation (BPA) is the technology-enabled automation of complex[73] business processes. It can help to streamline a business for simplicity, achieve digital transformation, increase service quality, improve service delivery or contain costs. BPA consists of integrating applications, restructuring labor resources and using software applications throughout the organization. Robotic process automation is an emerging field within BPA and uses artificial intelligence. BPAs can be implemented in a number of business areas including marketing,[74] sales[75] and workflow.[76]

Did you know that being fit improves your IQ? According to healthguidance.org, being fit improves your IQ, though the mechanisms are unknown, this has to do with the cardiovascular and the increased oxygen getting to your brain, as well as using more of your brain for your movement and coordination (the motor cortex) and the increase of certain hormones released in your brain including dopamine and neurotransmitters. In tests, it was found that the concentration and memory of those who did regular exercise was improved. There are a lot of benefits to being fit. This includes being able to improve mood, looks, sex drive, immune system, protecting you from heart diseases, improving circulatory system, deepening your voice, and a lot more. 
Chandra Kandukuri is a Technical Test Lead at Microsoft with more than 16 years of software development experience in multiple environments, developing automation frameworks and tools. He advocates the use of TDD and dedicating the time and resources to do it well. Although it is relatively uncommon to see teams utilize TDD in his experience, Kandukuri recommends the method with automated software testing because of the positive teamwork habits it can promote.
Macronutrient ratios can be tricky. Always stay within these guidelines to ensure you’re getting the right nutrition: “Generally, for adults 19 years and older, the macronutrient breakdown recommendation is 45-65% calories from carbohydrates, 10-35% from protein, and 20-35% from fat,” says Cohn. That’s a wide range that covers people with a variety of different activity levels.
Software AG provides solutions that drive digital transformation in organizations worldwide, helping to improve operational efficiency, modernize systems and optimize processes for smarter decisions and better service. Our solutions include an integration platform built on a powerful enterprise service bus that enables organizations to quickly connect virtually any system and application. We offer enterprise architecture management solutions that help align the IT landscape with business needs.
From sunrise to sunset the Philips Hue White From sunrise to sunset the Philips Hue White Ambiance A19 Dimmable LED smart Bulb starter kit changes how you light your moments at home. With wireless control on your smartphone or tablet choose the perfect light setting for any mood or activity such as reading or relaxing concentrating or energizing. ...  More + Product Details Close
The term automation was coined in the automobile industry about 1946 to describe the increased use of automatic devices and controls in mechanized production lines. The origin of the word is attributed to D.S. Harder, an engineering manager at the Ford Motor Company at the time. The term is used widely in a manufacturing context, but it is also applied outside manufacturing in connection with a variety of systems in which there is a significant substitution of mechanical, electrical, or computerized action for human effort and intelligence.

Today’s software testing tool market offers testers more options—and more confusion—than ever before. Both the open source community and commercial vendors are introducing new software testing tools at an unprecedented rate. On top of that, the past couple years have brought tremendous turmoil in the software testing tools marketplace (think HPE-Micro Focus spin merge, the IBM Rational- HCL deal …). Given all the new choices and changes, it’s not surprising that there are now 100+ software testing tools lists making the rounds on blogs and software testing community sites.
I think we can all agree that automation is a critical part of any organization's software delivery pipeline, especially if you call yourself "agile." It's pretty intuitive that if you automate testing, your release cycles are going to get shorter. "So, if that's the case," you might say, "why don't we just automate everything?" There's a good reason: automation comes with a price.
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An example of a good use of BPA is in customer success activities. Automation ensures that your team members can spend their time on the high-touch work needed to retain your customers (such as onboarding) instead of data entry. Data entry is rife for errors and mishaps, and it relies on the team to communicate the customer information to each other.
Jones believes the most common reason for using test automation today is to shorten the regression test cycle. Regression tests are used to determine if changes to the software are the cause of new problems. They verify that a system under test hasn’t changed. To guard against introducing unintended changes, they become part of a regression test suite after the tests pass. Regression tests are automated to ensure regular feedback.

Software tests have to be repeated often during development cycles to ensure quality. Every time source code is modified software tests should be repeated. For each release of the software it may be tested on all supported operating systems and hardware configurations. Manually repeating these tests is costly and time consuming. Once created, automated tests can be run over and over again at no additional cost and they are much faster than manual tests. Automated software testing can reduce the time to run repetitive tests from days to hours. A time savings that translates directly into cost savings.
Currently, the relative anxiety about automation reflected in opinion polls seems to correlate closely with the strength of organized labor in that region or nation. For example, while a recent study by the Pew Research Center indicated that 72% of Americans are worried about increasing automation in the workplace, 80% of Swedes see automation and artificial intelligence as a good thing, due to the country’s still-powerful unions and a more robust national safety net.[47]
Nearly a century later, despite formidable advances in technology, repetitive tasks persist. Automation continues apace; millions of jobs once carried out by humans are accomplished by software and mechanized factories, while Americans are working harder and increasingly longer hours. The gains from automation have generally been enjoyed not by those who operate the machines, but by those who own them. According to the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, the share of income going to wages in OECD nations has been decreasing since the 1970s, while the share being funneled into capital—into things like cash reserves and machinery—has been increasing. It can seem that some of the only workers who have realized any scrap of that rusty old promise of automation are the ones who’ve carved out the code to claim it for themselves.
Another study, published in the Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Diabetics showed similar findings. The researchers observed 123 postmenopausal, overweight and obese women over the span of a year. These women were put on two different diets. But regardless of which diet the women followed, the women who completed food journals lost about 4 percent more weight, on average, than those who didn’t track their food regularly.

Using automation, your team member would select the department and the position they are hiring and download the automated checklist. This checklist would update to reflect the necessary tasks to recruit and onboard this type of employee. Each interviewee gets a fresh checklist, and all the interview and hiring information is automatically stored in a central location. Once the choice is made, the hiring process pushes the information to the onboarding process.

If you're interested in sous vide cooking—where food sealed in plastic is immersed in a hot bath to cook to perfection—you need an immersion circulator to get started. The Anova Culinary Precision Cooker uses Wi-Fi connectivity so you control it from anywhere, even when you're not home. A big dial lets you set the desired temperature to within a tenth of a degree, display shows the set and current water temperature, and an app keeps you notified of the cooking process every step of the way. It makes cooking sous vide as simple as can be.
With an easy-to-navigate interface, this app is a great choice for those trying food journaling for the first time. Save and re-use your logged meals, which can be built from the four million foods in the MyFitnessPal database. Best of all, there’s a barcode scanner that can help easily input your daily diet. While you’ll only be able to set a caloric goal and not a macronutrient goal, you’ll still be able to see your nutrient breakdown by tapping the “Nutrition” pie chart icon at the bottom of the “Diary” screen. Red, blue and green slices make visualizing your progress a piece of cake! Check out your weekly breakdown under the “Nutrition” tab in the menu. (Free; iOS, Android)
Another programmer went to great lengths to conceal the contours of his fully automated $50,000 per year job from his boss. Management could check in on his computer screen via the network, so he ran a loop of prerecorded video to hide the fact that he wasn’t actually working. In his advice-seeking post, Etherable wrote, “It doesn’t feel like I’m doing the right thing.”
To make your home smart, all you need to do is combine smart components like doorbell cameras, security cameras, smart thermostats, door & window sensors, smoke detectors, and other home control devices into a unified network with a central control dashboard and an artificial intelligence algorithm. When you install a smart home platform like Vivint Smart Home Cloud, for example, managing your home gets significantly more convenient. With Vivint Smart Home Cloud, you’ll no longer need to switch between different home control apps or walk through the house flipping switches by hand. To learn more about home to make your home smart, click here.
Some of this is because of the automation of less sophisticated tasks, like cataloging inventory, and buying for less stylistically demanding retailers (say, auto parts). — New York Times, "High-Skilled White-Collar Work? Machines Can Do That, Too," 7 July 2018 Does machine automation make sense for all industries? — Amy Chance, sacbee, "'Not all machines are evil,' and other thoughts on California's changing economy," 2 July 2018 Broussard is right as well to take technologists to task for setting priorities that obscure the impact of innovation on people and the implications of automation for the workplace. — Glenn C. Altschuler, Philly.com, "Meredith Broussard's 'Artificial Unintelligence': Against the fetish of the machine," 28 June 2018 Creator fits into a category that only seems to be growing as automation becomes a way for food businesses to reconcile rising wages and staff shortages. — Justin Phillips, SFChronicle.com, "Six things to know about Creator, San Francisco’s new burger robot restaurant," 27 June 2018 The catering industry is known for low pay, so automation is not an obvious cost-saver. — The Economist, "The rise of the robochef," 12 July 2018 Buy Photo Is automation destroying familiar jobs, reducing drudge work, collecting more information than anyone expected, and opening opportunities? — Joseph N. Distefano, Philly.com, "America's robot future: Rajant celebrates new HQ, plans for growth," 2 July 2018 Myers’s company, Carbon Robotics, has worked on developing an industrial-grade robotic arm for industrial automation. — Kat Borgerding, Recode, "The Carbon Robotics CEO says robots will be today’s combine harvester," 1 June 2018 This is capitalism, after all, and automation is inevitable. — Matt Simon, WIRED, "The WIRED Guide to Robots," 17 May 2018
In 1975, the first general purpose home automation network technology, X10, was developed. It is a communication protocol for electronic devices. It primarily uses electric power transmission wiring for signaling and control, where the signals involve brief radio frequency bursts of digital data, and remains the most widely available.[8] By 1978, X10 products included a 16 channel command console, a lamp module, and an appliance module. Soon after came the wall switch module and the first X10 timer.
“I’ve worked with many clients to improve their business process efficiency. The main way I achieve efficiency is through the integration of financial and operational applications. There are many ways to use cloud applications to get rid of redundancies, reduce data lag/availability, and — by eradicating human intervention — improve accuracy in the collection of data. You will often observe that a human entering or moving data through a process is susceptible to inaccuracies and the delays of office life. By automating these processes, you reduce or eliminate the inaccuracies and can significantly cut down on the time it takes to get actionable data.
API driven testing. A testing framework that uses a programming interface to the application to validate the behaviour under test. Typically API driven testing bypasses application user interface altogether. It can also be testing public (usually) interfaces to classes, modules or libraries are tested with a variety of input arguments to validate that the results that are returned are correct.
Analysts at Gartner (the world’s leading research and advisory company) evaluated 9 “enterprise-grade” software testing tool. The evaluation involved inquiries with clients, surveys of tool users, vendor responses to questions, and product evaluations. Gartner required tools to support native Windows desktop application testing and Android or iOS testing support as well as support 3 of the following: responsive web applications, mobile applications, packaged applications (SAP, Salesforce, etc.), API/web services. Tools covered include Tricentis, Micro Focus, Microsoft, IBM, SmartBear, CA Technologies, TestPlant, Parasoft, and Ranorex. [Read this software testing tools list]

But if test automation is so limited, why do we do it in the first place? Because we have to, there is simply no other way. Because development adds up, testing doesn’t. Each iteration and release adds new features to the software (or so it should). And they need to be tested, manually. But new features also usually cause changes in the software that can break existing functionality. So existing functionality has to be tested, too. Ideally, you even want existing functionality to be tested continuously, so you recognise fast if changes break existing functionality and need some rework. But even if you only test before releases, in a team with a fixed number of developers and testers, over time, the testers are bound to fall behind. This is why at some point, testing has to be automated.
“The most important thing to consider is the problem you are trying to solve. Many test automation initiatives fail because teams are trying to jump in head first and automate every test possible instead of the most valuable tests according to the goals of development. They find themselves in a maintenance nightmare. Pick the most valuable test you were already performing manually and automate those first.”
“We have introduced the Plustek eScan stand-alone scanning kiosk to several companies where people need to quickly convert paper documents into digital ones. This scanner allows them to log in and send the information to preset locations at the touch of a button. This not only saves a ton of time, but also provides the ultimate secure solution because the user cannot send the files to another location, either intentionally or by accident.
This doesn’t replace the face-to-face communication that’s a necessary part of software development. Instead, it enhances that aspect by providing another channel through which to communicate. Think of it this way – email didn’t replace the telephone; it was just an additional tool that could be used to communicate. The same holds true with tools like TestComplete by SmartBear – they’re not replacements for face-to-face communication as much as they’re ways to improve communication.
As it relates to testing software, Hazen looks at Agile and non-Agile methods of development as being risk-based decisions. According to Hazen, the question of how test automation impacts Agile or other development methods comes down to how much automation “tooling” is used, where it is implemented in testing, and how much it is relied on for the project’s goal.  
The automation of vehicles could prove to have a substantial impact on the environment, although the nature of this impact could be beneficial or harmful depending on several factors. Because automated vehicles are much less likely to get into accidents compared to human-driven vehicles, some precautions built into current models (such as anti-lock brakes or laminated glass) would not be required for self-driving versions. Removing these safety features would also significantly reduce the weight of the vehicle, thus increasing fuel economy and reducing emissions per mile. Self-driving vehicles are also more precise with regard to acceleration and breaking, and this could contribute to reduced emissions. Self-driving cars could also potentially utilize fuel-efficient features such as route mapping that is able to calculate and take the most efficient routes. Despite this potential to reduce emissions, some researchers theorize that an increase of production of self-driving cars could lead to a boom of vehicle ownership and use. This boom could potentially negate any environmental benefits of self-driving cars if a large enough number of people begin driving personal vehicles more frequently.[53]

Jennifer Thomé, Business Development and Marketing Manager at Plustek, believes, “The current state of business process automation is pretty abysmal for many companies, especially well-established ones that have to bring years of old processes and documents into the modern age. Doctors, accountants, and many government agencies are slowed down by the fact that they don't have the resources to update their systems and complete their work simultaneously.


There is a section of testing tools that should be addressed but is too varied to fit under one category. Test automation assumes the latest version of the application is installed on the computer or web server. It still needs to be compiled and installed, the automation needs to be started, and someone needs to be informed to check the results. All of these secondary tasks fall into support -- and they can all be automated. Continuous integration tools are support tools that notice a check-in of new code, perform a build, create a new virtual web server (or update a staging server), push the new code to the target machine, run the automation to exercise the program, examine the results, and email relevant team members about failure.
The order would apparently instruct federal agencies to refuse to recognize the citizenship of children born in the United States if their parents are not citizens. The Axios report was unclear on whether the order would target only American-born children of undocumented immigrants, children of foreigners visiting the U.S. on nonpermanent visas—or the children of any noncitizen.
Automation is a real issue and challenge for labor conditions from industrial to white collar jobs. There are many benefits to find in it but it also might lead to a standardization of processes. I wrote on this subject if you want more information about how automation is changing the way we get productive. http://www.beesapps.com/market-usage/business-process-automation-benefits-for-productivity/
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