Until fairly recently, automated central control of building-wide systems was found only in larger commercial buildings and expensive homes. Typically involving only lighting, heating and cooling systems, building automation rarely provided more than basic control, monitoring and scheduling functions and was accessible only from specific control points within the building itself.


On the weekend before the opening gavel of what’s being dubbed the Harvard affirmative-action trial, a record-breaking 597 of my fellow members of the class of ’88 and I, along with alumni from other reunion classes, were seated in a large lecture hall, listening to the new president of Harvard, Lawrence Bacow, address the issue of diversity in the admissions process. What he said—and I’m paraphrasing, because I didn’t record it—was that he could fill five whole incoming classes with valedictorians who’d received a perfect score on the SAT, but that’s not what Harvard is or will ever be. Harvard tries—and succeeds, to my mind—to fill its limited spots with a diversity not only of race and class but also of geography, politics, interests, intellectual fields of study, and worldviews.
To effectively manage RPA, companies should involve IT early and often, designating an IT RPA expert who can help you manage the volume of data you decide to collect. You should also have an RPA project manager who provides structure to the implementation. In businesses with compliance requirements, controlling the project rollout will maintain good governance. Other experts suggest building an RPA center of excellence that gives your personnel the resources they need when they have questions and issues for a more manageable impact on your employees.
Where do you begin with a BPA project? How do you identify which processes should be automated at the beginning? Companies should select the processes by first looking at their strategic needs. In this way, companies should ask themselves what will make them more competitive in the marketplace. For instance, you may be concerned with getting goods to market quicker (or first) or decreasing the price of your products by improving your margins.

The 2018 Process Control & Safety Symposium and Exhibition (PCS) returns to Houston, TX. Sponsored by the Process Measurement and Control, Safety and Security, Chemical and Petroleum, Communications, Education, Pulp and Paper, and Management Divisions of ISA and the ISA Houston Section who are teaming up to bring another world-class program, exhibit, and networking event this November.
This might be one of the more interesting job categories that will thrive with automation. While less and less time will be focused on the mundane tasks, people will have more time to focus on growing themselves as a person. In fact, I believe the key to automation being a growth engine rather than a means to replace jobs, we are going to need a path for people to grow and adapt to human/machine partnerships.  This is where the coach can really shine. A coach, just like on a soccer field, is a person who assists people see their potential in a certain area and capitalize on it. This category isn’t directly related to automation, but like continuing education, it is one that has a lot of potential because as automation becomes more pervasive, people will need help to adapt into our changing world.

Set schedules are helpful, but many of us keep different hours from day to day. Energy costs can be even further reduced by programming “macros” into the system and controlling it remotely whenever needed. In other words, you could set up a “coming home” event that turns on lights and heating as you’re driving home after work, for example, and activate it all with one tap on your smartphone. An opposite “leaving home” event could save you from wasting energy on forgotten lights and appliances once you’ve left for the day.
Developers have used a programming language to develop every business process automation tool. However, they often develop unique, customized automation tools based on an organization’s needs. It is critical to have someone with knowledge of the language specific to an organization’s BPA tool, especially for large organizations. To determine which language is the best to learn, experts recommend looking at the programs already in use at your company, the current team’s knowledge, the framework of the project with respect to what has already been developed, and what kind of support is available in that language. Common automation languages include Java (Java SE, Java EE, Java ME, and Java FX platforms), C# (.Net platform), PHP, Ruby,  JavaScript, BPM, and ESB (IBM BPM, Pega PRPC, and Pega Mobile).
Automation tools perform a series of preplanned scenarios with expected results, and either check exact screen regions -- in record/playback -- or only what they are told to specifically check for -- in keyword-driven. A computer will never say "that looks odd," never explore or get inspired by one test to have a new idea. Nor will a computer note that a "failure" is actually a change in the requirements. Instead, the test automation will log a failure and a human will have to look at the false failure, analyze it, recognize that it is not a bug and "fix" the test. This creates a maintenance burden. Automated testing tools automate only the test execution and evaluation.
RPA provides organizations with the ability to reduce staffing costs and human error. David Schatsky, a managing director at Deloitte LP, points to a bank’s experience with implementing RPA, in which the bank redesigned its claims process by deploying 85 bots to run 13 processes, handling 1.5 million requests per year. The bank added capacity equivalent to more than 200 full-time employees at approximately 30 percent of the cost of recruiting more staff, Schatsky says.
To keep track of our ever-growing suite of tests, we also classify the automation status of our tests ("already automated," "blocked," "cannot be automated," "in progress," "to be automated") and define the scope of each test (API, integration, user interface, end-to-end, etc.) Note that we have recognized that not all tests should (or can) be automated.
Nearly every program that runs in a browser now has a mobile counterpart. Because of this, mobile test tooling is quickly becoming as important, if not more so, than testing in a web browser. Sometimes this automation takes control of the mobile device by launching an app or mobile browser and performing some actions. Other times this testing happens just below the surface by working at the API level.
In 1975, the first general purpose home automation network technology, X10, was developed. It is a communication protocol for electronic devices. It primarily uses electric power transmission wiring for signaling and control, where the signals involve brief radio frequency bursts of digital data, and remains the most widely available.[8] By 1978, X10 products included a 16 channel command console, a lamp module, and an appliance module. Soon after came the wall switch module and the first X10 timer.

These success factors make RPA a reasonable, low cost and lower risk entry-level approach to AI even if the technology is not very smart today.  RPA nicely lays the foundation for more intelligent applications later. And even without the potential of more intelligent RPA, the ease of implementation and rapid ROI from many RPA projects makes them worth strong consideration for almost any firm today.
Speaking of Wikipedia…here’s a direct link to all the software testing tools that meet Wikipedia criteria (to be worthy of inclusion, the tool must be deemed sufficiently notable, and that notability must be verifiable through citations to reliable sources). In addition to individual software testing tools, the page also links to category pages which compare tools on community-driven criteria. [Read this software testing tools list]
TestComplete by SmartBear is a powerful commercial testing tool for web, mobile, and desktop testing. TestComplete supports various scripting languages such as JavaScript, VBScript, Python, and C++Script. Like Katalon Studio, testers can perform keyword-driven and data-driven testing with TestComplete. The tool also offers an easy-to-use record and playback feature.
Based on a formula by Gilles Saint-Paul, an economist at Toulouse 1 University, the demand for unskilled human capital declines at a slower rate than the demand for skilled human capital increases.[100] In the long run and for society as a whole it has led to cheaper products, lower average work hours, and new industries forming (i.e., robotics industries, computer industries, design industries). These new industries provide many high salary skill based jobs to the economy. By 2030, between 3 and 14 percent of the global workforce will be forced to switch job categories due to automation eliminating jobs in an entire sector. While the number of jobs lost to automation are often offset by jobs gained from technological advances, the same type of job lost is not the same one replaced and that leading to increasing unemployment in the lower-middle class. This occurs largely in the US and developed countries where technological advances contribute to higher demand for high skilled labor but demand for middle wage labor continues to fall. Economists call this trend “income polarization” where unskilled labor wages are driven down and skilled labor is driven up and it is predicted to continue in developed economies.[101]

The food retail industry has started to apply automation to the ordering process; McDonald's has introduced touch screen ordering and payment systems in many of its restaurants, reducing the need for as many cashier employees.[64] The University of Texas at Austin has introduced fully automated cafe retail locations.[65] Some Cafes and restaurants have utilized mobile and tablet "apps" to make the ordering process more efficient by customers ordering and paying on their device.[66] Some restaurants have automated food delivery to customers tables using a Conveyor belt system. The use of robots is sometimes employed to replace waiting staff.[67]
Summary: Provides application security as a service with a single platform to view and manage security risk, develop security testing schedules and run remediation projects. Fortify on Demand runs automated tests with a full audit of results and includes support for the SAST, DAST and IAST spaces (due to addition of the legacy WebInspect tool) as well as limited support for MAST.
One could also argue that RPA lays the groundwork for machine learning and more intelligent applications.  It both gathers useful data and is being combined with AI capabilities. One of us (O’Dell) recently interviewed Eric Siegel, a predictive analytics expert and author of the book, Predictive Analytics: The Power to Predict Who Will Click, Buy, Lie, or Die. Siegel pointed out an often overlooked benefit of starting by digitizing processes with simple RPA: the digital bread crumbs it now leaves behind. “This data wasn’t amassed in order to do machine learning. It’s just a side effect of doing business as usual. The transactional residue accumulates and, lo and behold, it turns out this stuff is really valuable because you can learn from it. You can derive these patterns to help improve the very transactional processes that have been accumulating the data in the first place.”  
This one is the most detailed app I came across. To give you an idea — not only does it track your protein, but you can see how much of each of 12 amino acids you’re getting — and that’s just the basic version of the app. If you’re the type to wonder how much zeaxanthin you ate last week, and whether you’ve had enough electrolytes to get through a 10K, this one’s for you.
Like BPA, RPA can reduce human error and the cost of employing a large staff. Bots do not require custom software, and they are fairly low cost and simple to integrate. According to McKinsey & Company, the return on investment for RPA varies between 30-200 percent in the first year, mainly in labor savings. One company in banking was able to add 85 bots with the capacity of 200 staff members, cutting its recruiting cost by 30 percent.
The two of us have been looking at cases in which knowledge workers collaborate with machines to do things that neither could do well on their own. And as automation makes greater incursions into their workplaces, these people respond with a surprisingly broad repertoire of moves. Conventional wisdom is that as machines threaten their livelihood, humans must invest in ever higher levels of formal education to keep ahead. In truth, as we will discuss below, smart people are taking five approaches to making their peace with smart machines.
Additionally, many RPA implementations fail because they are not well thought through or executed in concert with the company’s strategic direction. Further, soundly implementing bots is critical, and changes during the process, even those required by compliance needs, can throw them off. They do not always have the necessary flexibility configured when platforms change. This has caused some companies to either refuse to install bots or to put their installation on hold, according to a McKinsey & Company report. A Deloitte UK study indicated that only 3 percent of progressive leaders have been able to reach an RPA scale of 50 or more bots.

The Nest Learning Thermostat has built-in Wi-Fi so you can remotely control the temperature from phone, tablet, or PC. This latest generation also has a larger display and a few more sensors than its predecessors, in addition to geofencing support and a furnace monitor. If you find it a bit too pricey, Nest also offers the Thermostat E, which has most of the same smart features for $80 less.
“For example, one process automation involved a distribution company that sold primarily to big-box retailers. In its old state, the organization had no window into what customers were ordering until after the warehouse fulfilled it. In addition, they would get a report once a week, which required someone to manually manipulate the data and import the data into the accounting software.

The Pittsburgh morgue sits in a squat cement building on a street with little light, sandwiched between a bar and a highway. The door was locked and the lobby quiet on Sunday evening; few people were out in the chilly, intermittent rain. A sign on the door instructed visitors to use a nearby phone to reach the security desk. Throughout the night, someone new would be arriving each hour. They were the shomrim, or guards.
Think about the cell phone and computer you use every day to do your job. Think about the car you drive to take to work. Think about the food you eat; water you drink; clothes you wear; and appliances you use to store, prepare, and clean them. Think about the television you watch, video games you play, or music system you listen to. Think about the buildings you visit. Think about any modern convenience or necessity. Just about anything you can think of is the result of complex processes. Without talented individuals to design, build, improve, and maintain these processes, these technological advances would never have occurred and future innovations would be impossible. Without automation professionals, our world and our future would be very different.
See below for a list of popular unit testing frameworks and tools for major platforms and programming languages. These frameworks can be used by programmers to test specific functionality in libraries and applications. Unit tests can then be used to automatically test new versions and builds as part of an automated build system or deployment process.
Before that happens, anyone who works with code may want to consider the benefits enjoyed by self-automation. They’re a sort of test case for how automation could deliver a higher quality of life to the average worker, albeit an imperfect one. “The problem is for automation to work, it needs to be democratized,” Woodcock told me. “It’s a step forward that it’s not a corporate manager who’s delivering automation. It’s still not a democratic process.” Self-automators are acting alone, deciding when and how to replace their own job with code. Ideally, automation decisions would happen collectively, with colleagues’ and peers’ input, so the gains could be evenly distributed.
Today extensive automation is practiced in practically every type of manufacturing and assembly process. Some of the larger processes include electrical power generation, oil refining, chemicals, steel mills, plastics, cement plants, fertilizer plants, pulp and paper mills, automobile and truck assembly, aircraft production, glass manufacturing, natural gas separation plants, food and beverage processing, canning and bottling and manufacture of various kinds of parts. Robots are especially useful in hazardous applications like automobile spray painting. Robots are also used to assemble electronic circuit boards. Automotive welding is done with robots and automatic welders are used in applications like pipelines.
The market is, however, evolving in this area. In order to automate these processes, connectors are needed to fit these systems/solutions together with a data exchange layer to transfer the information. A process driven messaging service is an option for optimizing your data exchange layer. By mapping your end-to-end process workflow, you can build an integration between individual platforms using a process driven messaging platform. Process driven messaging service gives you the logic to build your process by using triggers, jobs and workflows. Some companies uses an API where you build workflow/s and then connect various systems or mobile devices. You build the process, creating workflows in the API where the workflow in the API acts as a data exchange layer.
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