In software testing, test automation is the use of special software (separate from the software being tested) to control the execution of tests and the comparison of actual outcomes to predicted outcomes. Test automation can automate some repetitive but necessary tasks in a formalized testing process already in place, or add additional testing that would be difficult to perform manually.
Alan Page is an author with more than two decades of experience in software testing roles, the majority spent in various roles at Microsoft. He offers another perspective on the importance of distinguishing automated and manual testing. In “The A Word,” an ebook compilation of his blog posts on automation, Page mentions that most of his commentary on automation focuses on the “abuse and misuse” of automation in software testing and development. He is skeptical of replacing manual testing activity with test automation, as you can see from the his Twitter feed:
Katalon Studio is a powerful test automation solution for mobile, Web, and API testing. And it is completely FREE! It provides a comprehensive set of features for test automation, including recording actions, creating test cases, generating test scripts, executing tests, reporting results, and integrating with many other tools in the software development lifecycle.
Today, BPA is a normal part of the toolkit for process excellence and continuous improvement, with components like systems integration, enterprise resource planning (ERP) systems, and workflow tools. With the Internet of Things (IoT) connecting objects to the digital world, BPA enables the transfer of data over a network without any human interaction. Advances in mobile technology have enabled a remote workforce, which can dramatically decrease company expenses.
Test automation eases this burden by automating the tracking and managing of all those testing needs, including how much of the system different tests cover and what other types of testing might be required to cover all the moving parts. In doing so, test automation goes a long way toward helping ensure that teams maintain a high standard of quality at all points along the pipeline. Additionally, it allows testers to focus more time and effort on creating effective test cases to ensure the quality of the software since they’re no longer bogged down in managing all the minutia of testing needs.
The test automation pyramid, first introduced by Cohn in Succeeding with Agile, shows how you should maximize automation, starting with your unit tests at the lowest level of the pyramid and moving on to service level testing. User interface testing sits at the very top. Unit tests are fast and reliable. The service layer allows for testing business logic at the API or service level, where you're not encumbered by the user interface (UI). The higher the level, the slower and more brittle testing becomes. Finally, while some UI test automation should be done, such tests are slower, more difficult to maintain, and break more easily. Keep those to a minimum.
When we talk about continuous testing, and with it continuous delivery and DevOps, the term automation gets thrown around a lot. In a basic sense, we all understand what automation means — the use of some technology to complete a task. But when we talk about automation in terms of continuous testing, there are some nuances that we need to take into account.
The first tools made of stone represented prehistoric man’s attempts to direct his own physical strength under the control of human intelligence. Thousands of years were undoubtedly required for the development of simple mechanical devices and machines such as the wheel, the lever, and the pulley, by which the power of human muscle could be magnified. The next extension was the development of powered machines that did not require human strength to operate. Examples of these machines include waterwheels, windmills, and simple steam-driven devices. More than 2,000 years ago the Chinese developed trip-hammers powered by flowing water and waterwheels. The early Greeks experimented with simple reaction motors powered by steam. The mechanical clock, representing a rather complex assembly with its own built-in power source (a weight), was developed about 1335 in Europe. Windmills, with mechanisms for automatically turning the sails, were developed during the Middle Ages in Europe and the Middle East. The steam engine represented a major advance in the development of powered machines and marked the beginning of the Industrial Revolution. During the two centuries since the introduction of the Watt steam engine, powered engines and machines have been devised that obtain their energy from steam, electricity, and chemical, mechanical, and nuclear sources.
Call it self-automation, or auto-automation. At a moment when the specter of mass automation haunts workers, rogue programmers demonstrate how the threat can become a godsend when taken into coders’ hands, with or without their employers’ knowledge. Since both FiletOFish1066 and Etherable posted anonymously and promptly disappeared, neither could be reached for comment. But their stories show that workplace automation can come in many forms and be led by people other than executives.
Automation professionals do and will continue to play a crucial role in protecting us from cyber-attack; enhancing our quality of life; and ensuring the reliability, efficiency, safety, constant improvement, and competitiveness of our electric power systems, transportation systems, manufacturing operations, and industry as a whole. Without these individuals, we cannot advance into the future.
Authors Dorothy Graham and Mark Fewster wrote the field's seminal text, Software Test Automation, which has guided many organizations toward success. Now, in Experiences of Test Automation, they reveal test automation at work in a wide spectrum of organizations and projects, from complex government systems to medical devices, SAP business process development to Android mobile apps and cloud migrations.
“The best way to optimize marketing automation is to connect it with a customer relationship management (CRM) platform. If your business brings in revenue by combining marketing and sales campaigns, then your system should be integrated. Connecting your marketing automation platform with your CRM will help marketers on your team connect crucial campaign strategies with the financial outcomes. This will provide your salespeople with better visibility into prospecting and leads. It also allows your marketing team to hand leads over to sales without manually exporting anything.”
For now, my pick is the Belkin WeMo Mini, which offers a mature, well-developed system, tons of use scenarios, fairly wide third-party compatibility, and best of all, a price point of just $35. It's a low-risk way to dip your foot into smart home waters, and if you like it, finding compatible gadgets that make it even smarter isn't difficult at all.
Over the past year few years, we’ve heard about robots coming for our jobs. Each time a self-checkout lane opens at the nearest grocery store, some start to panic. And although we’ve already had a glimpse into how automation is going to be beneficial to us all, it isn’t completely met with open arms. Still, I think there are a few job categories, or perhaps better defined, "Career Personas," that will thrive with automation.

The Nest Learning Thermostat has built-in Wi-Fi so you can remotely control the temperature from phone, tablet, or PC. This latest generation also has a larger display and a few more sensors than its predecessors, in addition to geofencing support and a furnace monitor. If you find it a bit too pricey, Nest also offers the Thermostat E, which has most of the same smart features for $80 less.
There are many ways to track your sleep these days, from fitness trackers to smartwatches, but perhaps nothing is better suited for the job than your mattress itself. At least, that's the idea behind Sleep Number's 360 Smart Bed, which incorporates biometric sensors to help you snooze better. You use an app on your smartphone to view your sleep trends and health metrics, and to gain insight on how you can sleep better. It's a hefty investment, but if you have the money to spend, the 360 Smart Bed is a comfortable, effective, and highly customizable way to improve your quality of sleep.
The truth is, business will become less and less reliant on humans to do mundane, repetitive tasks. Automation will take over and we will be able to use our minds and our creatively ability to make a difference in business and ultimately the world. We will be able to create more, innovate more, and achieve more when we have more time to focus on other things. I can’t wait to see how the creatives, composers, and coaches thrive in the future. Rather than titles, it will be these categories that best setup individuals for long term success. Begging the question, what category do you think you will fall under?

In 1975, the first general purpose home automation network technology, X10, was developed. It is a communication protocol for electronic devices. It primarily uses electric power transmission wiring for signaling and control, where the signals involve brief radio frequency bursts of digital data, and remains the most widely available.[8] By 1978, X10 products included a 16 channel command console, a lamp module, and an appliance module. Soon after came the wall switch module and the first X10 timer.


A trade credit insurance company with over 50,000 clients worldwide automated the credit limit request underwriting process. Underwriters were previously gathering information manually, from internal (Risk & Policy) to external (Customer Site, Google News) sources. With RPA, they saved 2,440 hours of human work a month. Employees now use that time to work directly with customers.
TestLeft is a powerful yet lean functional testing tool for dev-testers working in Agile teams. It fully embeds into standard development IDEs enabling developers to easily and quickly create robust functional automated tests without leaving their favorite IDEs such as Visual Studio. It also works well with other tools in dev eco-systems such as source control or continuous integration systems. With TestLeft, developers can:
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Augmentation, in contrast, means starting with what humans do today and figuring out how that work could be deepened rather than diminished by a greater use of machines. Some thoughtful knowledge workers see this clearly. Camille Nicita, for example, is the CEO of Gongos, a company in metropolitan Detroit that helps clients gain consumer insights—a line of work that some would say is under threat as big data reveals all about buying behavior. Nicita concedes that sophisticated decision analytics based on large data sets will uncover new and important insights. But, she says, that will give her people the opportunity to go deeper and offer clients “context, humanization, and the ‘why’ behind big data.” Her shop will increasingly “go beyond analysis and translate that data in a way that informs business decisions through synthesis and the power of great narrative.” Fortunately, computers aren’t very good at that sort of thing.

Hazen uses the term “automagic” to get people to think about what their goals are for using automation tools and technology for their specific project needs. He cautions against assuming the use of automation testing tools is a cure-all or silver bullet solution. As Hazen points out, automation testing is still dependent on the people performing the testing.

The nature of home automation devices can also be a problem for security, since patches to bugs found in the core operating system often do not reach users of older and lower-price devices.[33][34] One set of researchers say that the failure of vendors to support older devices with patches and updates leaves more than 87% of active devices vulnerable.[35][36]
As it stands, self-automation can be empowering. But as automation techniques become better understood, they may simply become yet another skill set management can expect employees to possess, or learn—passing the gains to their organization, then making themselves useful in some other way. “Employees will increasingly need to automate their own jobs or get moved out,” writes the Harvard Business Review. “Worldwide, we’ll see many more top-down managerial mandates for bottom-up automation initiatives.” And the rich and their employee-built bots will again swallow the gains.

Quick wins are possible with RPA, but propelling RPA to run at scale is a different animal. Dave Kuder, a principal with Deloitte Consulting LLP, says that many RPA hiccups stem from poor expectations management. Bold claims about RPA from vendors and implementation consultants haven't helped. That's why it's crucial for CIOs to go in with a cautiously optimistic mindset. "If you go in with open eyes you'll be a lot happier with the result," Kuder says.
The Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) started the research and development of automated visual surveillance and monitoring (VSAM) program, between 1997 and 1999, and airborne video surveillance (AVS) programs, from 1998 to 2002. Currently, there is a major effort underway in the vision community to develop a fully automated tracking surveillance system. Automated video surveillance monitors people and vehicles in real time within a busy environment. Existing automated surveillance systems are based on the environment they are primarily designed to observe, i.e., indoor, outdoor or airborne, the amount of sensors that the automated system can handle and the mobility of sensor, i.e., stationary camera vs. mobile camera. The purpose of a surveillance system is to record properties and trajectories of objects in a given area, generate warnings or notify designated authority in case of occurrence of particular events.[70]
Others have had similar journies to the one above, such as Mark Winteringham. A person who I’ve personally known for a while, and whose work on API/Web Services I’ve followed and shared for a number of years. Mark and I have also taught a class together over recent years called ‘Automated Checking Beyond WebDriver’. Throughout those years we started working a lot closer with regard to our efforts on automation, striking up a great partnership. It’s that partnership that has led to this, Automation in Testing.
Let’s assume that computers are going to make their mark in your line of work. Indeed, let’s posit that software will soon perform most of the cognitive heavy lifting you do in your job and, as far as the essential day-to-day operation of the enterprise is concerned, make decisions as good as (probably better than) those made by 90% of the people who currently hold it. What should your strategy be to remain gainfully employed? From an augmentation perspective, people might renegotiate their relationship to machines and realign their contributions in five ways.
Summary: Simplifies inviting beta users, distributing builds and collecting feedback for beta testing of mobile apps. Applause Mobile Beta Management is mobile-only. It allows users to share feedback and submit bugs directly from within the app they are testing and provides managers with bug and feedback reports as well as participant session information and automatic crash reporting.
While automation saves you a lot of time, it still takes time. You can't run all your tests all the time. It takes too long and would generate an unmanageable analysis and maintenance effort. In my group, we've taken both manual and automation testing to three levels: sanity, end-to-end, and full. In addition to our feature tests, on every code commit, we run a set of high level, cross-feature tests to make sure that a code change in one feature hasn't broken another one. Only then do we run a set of more extended tests specific to the feature for which the code was committed. Then, we run our suite of feature-level sanity tests on our continuous delivery environment every three hours to make sure all features are in good shape. We only do this on one browser though, because we've found that if a test fails, it doesn't usually depend on the browser. Finally, we run feature end-to-end testing on our nightly environment.

Starting in 1958, various systems based on solid-state[27][28] digital logic modules for hard-wired programmed logic controllers (the predecessors of programmable logic controllers (PLC)) emerged to replace electro-mechanical relay logic in industrial control systems for process control and automation, including early Telefunken/AEG Logistat, Siemens Simatic (de), Philips/Mullard/Valvo (de) Norbit, BBC Sigmatronic, ACEC Logacec, Akkord (de) Estacord, Krone Mibakron, Bistat, Datapac, Norlog, SSR, or Procontic systems.[27][29][30][31][32][33]

Developers have used a programming language to develop every business process automation tool. However, they often develop unique, customized automation tools based on an organization’s needs. It is critical to have someone with knowledge of the language specific to an organization’s BPA tool, especially for large organizations. To determine which language is the best to learn, experts recommend looking at the programs already in use at your company, the current team’s knowledge, the framework of the project with respect to what has already been developed, and what kind of support is available in that language. Common automation languages include Java (Java SE, Java EE, Java ME, and Java FX platforms), C# (.Net platform), PHP, Ruby,  JavaScript, BPM, and ESB (IBM BPM, Pega PRPC, and Pega Mobile).

As it relates to testing software, Hazen looks at Agile and non-Agile methods of development as being risk-based decisions. According to Hazen, the question of how test automation impacts Agile or other development methods comes down to how much automation “tooling” is used, where it is implemented in testing, and how much it is relied on for the project’s goal.  
The move to agile has led many teams to adopt a pyramid testing strategy. The test automation pyramid strategy calls for automating tests at three different levels. Unit testing represents the base and biggest percentage of this test automation pyramid. Next comes, service layer, or API testing. And finally, GUI tests sit at the top. The pyramid looks something like this:
There are lot of governance challenges related to instantiating a single bot in environment let alone thousands. One Deloitte client spent several meetings trying to determine whether their bot was male or female, a valid gender question but one that must take into account human resources, ethics and other areas of compliance for the business, Kuder says.
It’s a story the Democratic National Committee has, until recently, utterly failed to tell. Until recently, the DNC was focused almost exclusively on the battle for Congress. I’m glad it has finally taken notice of the fact that 36 states are holding gubernatorial contests this year and that Democrats are likely to flip many of the most important state houses from red to blue. But from a strategic standpoint, it’s been very late to the game—although it’s better to be late than sorry.
Summary: Uses pre-built workflows and services on demand for continuous testing and Agile development. IBM InfoSphere Optim makes it easy to create production-like environments, allows for functional, regression integration and load testing via integrations with the Rational Test Workbench and allows for data masking and enterprise test data management policy development and enforcement.
In general usage, automation can be defined as a technology concerned with performing a process by means of programmed commands combined with automatic feedback control to ensure proper execution of the instructions. The resulting system is capable of operating without human intervention. The development of this technology has become increasingly dependent on the use of computers and computer-related technologies. Consequently, automated systems have become increasingly sophisticated and complex. Advanced systems represent a level of capability and performance that surpass in many ways the abilities of humans to accomplish the same activities.
Programmers, of course, have been writing code that automates their work for decades. Programming generally involves utilizing tools that add automation at different levels, from code formatting to merging to different code bases—most just don’t take it to the extreme of fully or nearly fully automating their job. I chatted, via direct message on Reddit and email, with about a dozen programmers who said they had. These self-automators had tackled inventory management, report writing, graphics rendering, database administration, and data entry of every kind. One automated his wife’s entire workload, too. Most asked to remain anonymous, to protect their job and reputation.
Over the past year few years, we’ve heard about robots coming for our jobs. Each time a self-checkout lane opens at the nearest grocery store, some start to panic. And although we’ve already had a glimpse into how automation is going to be beneficial to us all, it isn’t completely met with open arms. Still, I think there are a few job categories, or perhaps better defined, "Career Personas," that will thrive with automation.
TDD is misleading if you don’t realize that it is more about software design and teamwork than testing. According to the authors, an Agile programmer using TDD to write “test-first” code can think about what functionality they want from the code and then partner with a tester to make sure all aspects of the code are performing to that standard of functionality.
Many supermarkets and even smaller stores are rapidly introducing Self checkout systems reducing the need for employing checkout workers. In the United States, the retail industry employs 15.9 million people as of 2017 (around 1 in 9 Americans in the workforce). Globally, an estimated 192 million workers could be affected by automation according to research by Eurasia Group.[68]
The technology of automation has evolved from the related field of mechanization, which had its beginnings in the Industrial Revolution. Mechanization refers to the replacement of human (or animal) power with mechanical power of some form. The driving force behind mechanization has been humankind’s propensity to create tools and mechanical devices. Some of the important historical developments in mechanization and automation leading to modern automated systems are described here.
In a typical hard wired motor start and stop circuit (called a control circuit) a motor is started by pushing a "Start" or "Run" button that activates a pair of electrical relays. The "lock-in" relay locks in contacts that keep the control circuit energized when the push button is released. (The start button is a normally open contact and the stop button is normally closed contact.) Another relay energizes a switch that powers the device that throws the motor starter switch (three sets of contacts for three phase industrial power) in the main power circuit. Large motors use high voltage and experience high in-rush current, making speed important in making and breaking contact. This can be dangerous for personnel and property with manual switches. The "lock in" contacts in the start circuit and the main power contacts for the motor are held engaged by their respective electromagnets until a "stop" or "off" button is pressed, which de-energizes the lock in relay.[10]

Automation testing is a best way to fulfill most of the testing goals with effective resources and time. But be careful before purchasing the automation tool that fulfills the requirement of the application because no any tool can fulfill 100% requirement. You should be having skilled staff before taking decision to automate the application. So get the tool that matches to your requirement and for rest part do the manual testing.


There's plenty of failure in that combination. First of all, the feedback loop from development to test is delayed. It is likely that the code doesn't have the hooks and affordances you need to test it. Element IDs might not be predictable, or might be tied to the database, for example. With one recent customer, we couldn't delete orders, and the system added a new order as a row at the bottom. Once we had 20 test runs, the new orders appeared on page two! That created a layer of back and forth where the code didn't do what it needed to do on the first pass. John Seddon, the British occupational psychologist, calls this "failure demand," which creates extra work (demand) on a system that only exists because the system failed the first time around.
At some point, someone may want to change the way the code works. Some operation you call a hundred times suddenly requires that the users fill out a captcha or click a button before they can proceed, and all of the automation breaks. Fixing it requires a great deal of searching and replacing, and that could take days, while the programmers continue to move further and further ahead of you. Once this happens a few times, the test process becomes messy and expensive, and fails to deliver much value.
#2: Higher Employee Satisfaction – Anyone that’s ever held a position as an intern knows that menial, robotic tasks are extremely bad for motivation & enjoyment of work. No matter how you look at it, no one’s going to enjoy doing grunt work all day. If such things can be automated, both you (see point #1) and your employees will be happier (doing more meaningful work).

Summary: Provides tracking, management, organization and reporting capabilities for software testing and test case management. qTest Manager sets up and manages requirements, organizes and manages test cases, executes tests, tracks defects and reports on test data. It also integrates with JIRA, Rally and VersionOne as well as other popular automation tools.

The second catalyst for rapid adoption of RPA is the success of early pilots and proofs of concept. APQC's latest report, Make Success Automatic: Best Practices in Robotic Process Automation found that over 75% of respondents said their early RPA projects had met or exceeded expectations  (See Figure 2--Note: only 41% of respondents were far enough along to evaluate their satisfaction with RPA projects; Figure 2 includes only their data.)
The logic performed by telephone switching relays was the inspiration for the digital computer. The first commercially successful glass bottle blowing machine was an automatic model introduced in 1905.[37] The machine, operated by a two-man crew working 12-hour shifts, could produce 17,280 bottles in 24 hours, compared to 2,880 bottles made by a crew of six men and boys working in a shop for a day. The cost of making bottles by machine was 10 to 12 cents per gross compared to $1.80 per gross by the manual glassblowers and helpers.
See below for a list of popular unit testing frameworks and tools for major platforms and programming languages. These frameworks can be used by programmers to test specific functionality in libraries and applications. Unit tests can then be used to automatically test new versions and builds as part of an automated build system or deployment process.
TestLeft is a powerful yet lean functional testing tool for dev-testers working in Agile teams. It fully embeds into standard development IDEs enabling developers to easily and quickly create robust functional automated tests without leaving their favorite IDEs such as Visual Studio. It also works well with other tools in dev eco-systems such as source control or continuous integration systems. With TestLeft, developers can:

Home automation gets you involved. Set your personal preferences and actions, then sit back and enjoy using the latest in home automation technology. Though such technology might seem complex, it remains completely flexible and user-friendly making for a fun experience. Whether viewing visitors at your front door on your TV or tuning your stereo by using voice recognition, you'll find home automation surprisingly enjoyable. When it comes to impressing the friends, you'll be happy to show off your newfound applications.
After the senseless calamity of a mass shooting, people seek comforts—even small ones—in the face of horror. One of those small comforts has come to be Fred Rogers’s famous advice to look for the helpers. “When I was a boy and I would see scary things in the news,” Rogers said to his television neighbors, “my mother would say to me, ‘Look for the helpers. You will always find people who are helping.’”

The centrifugal governor, which was invented by Christian Huygens in the seventeenth century, was used to adjust the gap between millstones.[20][21][22] Another centrifugal governor was used by a Mr. Bunce of England in 1784 as part of a model steam crane.[23][24] The centrifugal governor was adopted by James Watt for use on a steam engine in 1788 after Watt’s partner Boulton saw one at a flour mill Boulton & Watt were building.[16]
Instead of creating the "tests" at the end, I suggest starting with examples at the beginning that can be run by a human or a software system. Get the programmer, tester, and product owner in a room to talk about what they need to be successful, to create examples, to define what the automation strategy will be, and to create a shared understanding to reduce failure demand. My preference is to do this at the story level — what some might call a minimum marketable feature — which requires a half-day to a week of work. George Dinwiddie, an agile coach in Maryland, popularized the term "the three amigos" for this style of work, referring to the programmer, tester, and analyst in these roles. Another term for the concept is acceptance test-driven development.
Does tracking three things sound tedious to you? Luckily, you can record your food and keep an eye on proteins, carbs and fats with just a few taps, thanks to a new crop of food diary apps. Nutrition is part science, part art, and at the end of the day, we all know that abs are made in the kitchen! Whether you’re a competitive bodybuilder, a recreational athlete or someone hoping to shed a few pounds, we’ve got the scoop on how to track macros with these five easy-to-navigate apps.
Using our definition, the automation profession includes “everyone involved in the creation and application of technology to monitor and control the production and delivery of products and services”; and the automation professional is “any individual involved in the creation and application of technology to monitor and control the production and delivery of products and services.”
Recommended by many nutritionists, Lose It! is an easy way to track edibles and also connect with food-conscious friends. Plus, Apple users are in luck — you can quickly build your Lose It profile by syncing with the HealthKit available on iOS 8. Within the Lose It! app, review your macronutrient breakdown by tapping the “Nutrients” tab. And thanks to a brightly colored circle in the middle of the home screen, calorie counters can gauge how much they should eat for the rest of the day. Want to know how you’ve fared all week long? Green and red bars indicate which days you hit the mark or overindulged. Bonus: The app now suggests healthy restaurants nearby. (Free; iOS, Android)
Testing in these short Agile iterations often necessitates a “shift left” approach. This shift left in agile development process means testing starts much earlier in the application lifecycle. As a result, in such an approach, developers with strong technical expertise are increasingly being held accountable for testing, and thus, they often work alongside testers to create test automation frameworks.
Another example is automation in human resources (HR). You can automate the recruitment and employee onboarding processes. In many companies, job descriptions and applications are not stored in a central location, while the screening and interviewing process is based on your current employees’ accountability, meaning that the process may be inconsistent and could open up your business to possible hiring bias. Onboarding can also vary among employees.
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